Go to Liyue's Adventurers' Guild, and talk to Lan next to the billboard. You will be asked to solve some riddles in order to find a treasure.
Getting the clues
To get the first clue, go to the marked quest area. When you go to the teleport waypoint, there will be some enemies nearby that you need to clear out. Defeating all the enemies will show you a map for the next destination.
Head to Dunyu Ruins and go to the location shown above. Behind/near the empty campsite, there are some notes that you can investigate above the broken pillars.
After interacting with the notes, 3 other places will be marked on your map. These locations have some enemies around, so it's recommended to use a proper team to investigate each area. Pick up all of the treasures and you will eventually get the "Strange Box" key item.