Some elite enemies have a chance to drop certain artifacts, you can find which ones by using your Adventurer Handbook and looking at the bosses section, and filter it to "Elite Enemies". Since enemies spawns every day, you an essentially try to farm them if you want to get specific ones. While there are numerous amounts of elite enemies roaming around, this page only covers the ones that are convenient to do each day.
If you want to find all the Elite Enemies' location, you can use any Genshin Impact interactive map websites. The one used for this page is from yuanshen. Not every marked enemy is shown at the right amount, but it's mostly accurate.
If you are having some difficulty fighting the Elite enemies, be sure to check out the enemy resistances page to get a better understanding for what to use to go against them, as well as possible tricks and weakpoints.
In Dunyu Ruins (a little north west of Liyue Harbor), you can find 3 Abyss Mages close to the Statue of the Seven - Geo. Simply glide south west after you teleport to the statue.
The other path is to go up. Start by gliding to the west and clear the 4 ruin guards & hunter, then head up to fight the 2 Fatui enemies. Finish it off by climbing the hill to close to the teleport waypoint and clear the three Geovishap Hatclings.
Doing the two paths is a total of 12 minibosses.
North of Dunyu Ruins is Tianqiu Valley. Go to the teleport waypoint shown above, and you can encounter 2 Geovishap Hatclings with an Electro Cicin Mage without having to go very far.
Guyun Stone Forest
There are a total of 10 elite enemies in Guyun Stone Forest path. Start by going teleporting to the north teleport waypoint, and rotate around the islands by heading to the east, all the way to the 4 Ruin Guards at the bottom. You can ignore the 3 Abyss Mages near the domain area, because you have to climb quite a distance to reach them. If you want to do them, then it's a total of 13 elite enemies in the area.
In Qingyun Peak, western mountain area or west of Wangshu Inn, you can find 4 Mitachurls pretty close to the teleport waypoint. Warp to the teleport waypoint shown on the picture above, and glide down 1 area before the camp to fight 1 mitachurl, then head down to find the other 3.
Other Artifact Farms
You can also do a different daily artifact farm by gathering the free ones from the world. The artifacts that you get are mostly rarity 1 or 2, so it's mainly for exp fodder for your main artifacts. It's still a decent and reliable source of artifact exp each day.