From the south west teleport waypoint that leads to Dragonspine, there is a sealed device and a ruin brazier near a bridge with some water. You'll need to unlock the sealed device by activating 4 Cryo pillars nearby.
The 2 Cryo pillars on the sealed device side is on the other side of the bridge, and another in the rock walls to the side.
The 2 Cryo pillars on the ruin brazier's side are also on the other side of the bridge. One on the leftmost part, close to the wall, and the other is above the broken wall on the right.
On the lowest level, destroy the breakable wall that leads to the exit, and take the scarlet quartz that's on the side. Use the scarlet quartz to melt 2 of the ice that's inside the cave. One of the ice is for the wooden cage that you need to interact to get the hidden quest, the other is to open the door to it.
Melt one of the ice that's above the caged doors with the 2 switches. The one that was in ice is to open the cage door for the key item, the other is for a treasure chest with a crimson agate.
Following the trail
After you interact with the key item from one of the caged doors, use your elemental sight (middle mouse button on pc, or the "eye" icon right next to your minimap) and follow the guiding light that goes north.
Eventually you will reach the second "Ragged Records". Interact with it before you go to the next location. There is a time trial challenge just behind the wall, and another in the small arena down below, which gives a treasure chest with some crimson agate. Recommended to take them before you go to the next spot.
Where the mountain meets the sea
Go all the way to the east side of Dragonspine, and on the bottom floor, where the water flows into a big cave like area, the one with a warm seelie puzzle. In the marked area shown above, you can find the third location for the Ragged Records. Interact with it to complete the hidden quest, and obtain the achievement "Prodigal Son's Return", under the "Wonders of the World" category.