This page mostly contains ore deposits to help find easy to farm spots that you can do on a daily basis. Their respawn times depends on when you take them.
Iron Chunks refreshes every 24 hours.
White Iron Chunks refreshes every 48 hours.
Crystal Chunks refreshes every 72 hours.
Special rocks like Cor Lapis, and Noctilucous Jades, takes 2-3 days.
It is recommended to bring Ningguang to your party since she has a passive talent that marks ore locations on your minimap.
Most of the ore deposits in Mondstadt area are White Iron Chunks. There are plenty of Crytal Chunks in Stormterror's Lair, but they are all spread around, and not convenient to farm. If you prefer to farm some Crystal Chunks then skip to Liyue region instead.
Near Stormbearer Point
From the Stormbearer Point teleport waypoint, head north to the location shown above and you will find a big rock with plenty of White Iron Chunks.
From Stormbearer Mountains teleport waypoint, head to the east and you will find another rock with plenty of ores, similar to the one before.
Northwest of Brightcrown Canyon teleport waypoint, which is close to the Stormterror's Lair, close to the walls of a small cliff.
East of the Wolvendom teleport waypoint. Plenty of White Iron Chunks, with 1 or 2 Crystal Chunks.
From the Valley of Remembrance domain, climb up behind the door and head east, you will find a small opening into a cave below where you will find plenty of ores.
From the Stone Gate teleport waypoint, it's quite a distance to the east, there are some ores with some hilichurls around. There are 2 ore sections not far from each other.
Near Wuwang Hill
Located in between Qingce village and Wuwang Hill, near the water area. From the closest teleport waypoint (left teleporter from the pic above) go east, and climb up when you're near the waterfall, then just go a bit further in.
In Dihua Marsh, the separate small island on the left has a decent sized cave with plenty of ores. You will have to either swim there, or use Kaeya to make an ice bridge.
In Mt. Aozang, go to the teleport waypoint, glide down to the west, and drop all the way down to the bottom floor. There will be a cave-like area there.
West of Liyue Harbor, in between Lingju Pass and Mt. Tianheng. The fast way to reach it is to teleport to "Domain of the Wayward Path", then go south and jump into the water area, then turn around and enter the cave.
Guyun Stone Forest
All the way down south east of the map, near Guyun Stone Forest area, there is a small island in the middle of islands. It is quite a distance to get there, but the small island does have a decent amount of Crystal Chunks.
Mingyun village is essentially the "mining" area of the game. There are mostly White Iron Chunks or Iron Chunks, but there's also Cor Lapis and some Noctilucous Jades, so it's a useful place to know if you need them. There are 3 mining caves, and a lot of iron chunk baskets that you can "investigate" to open up and get more.
Near Dunyu Ruins
In between Lingju Pass and Dunyu Ruins, there are a number of Crystal chunks and they are pretty close to the Statue of the Seven - Geo teleporter. Simply head west (and up a little) and find a small opening into the ruin. Once you're done there, head to the other side of the road and find some more near the half broken ruin tower.
You can get some quick and easy Crystal Chunks in Mt. Tianheng. Go to the teleport waypoint there, and head north west into the connecting land between the 2 mountains. You will find 3 near the mountain of the teleport waypoint, and 3 more on the other side.
If all of that is still not enough for you, you can go to Qingyun Peak and find more Crystal Chunks, but they are spread around and can be a mess to locate.
Rich Ore Reserves
More Crystal Chunks are available through the Ore Vein feature. This is released after the 1.1 version update, where you can now also get Magical Crystal Chunks.